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Vojvodina has a well-developed system of roads and railways, as well as an extensive network of canals and navigable waterways. The principal towns are Novi Sad the administrative centre , Subotica , and Zrenjanin.
Slav farmers first settled in Vojvodina in the 6th and 7th centuries, and Hungarian Magyar nomads arrived there in the 9th and 10th.
The Ottoman Turks controlled the region from the early 16th to the late 18th century. During that time many Serbs emigrated to Vojvodina from Serbia proper, which was under Ottoman rule.
The immigrant population was given grants of land and awarded privileges that included the right to elect their own leader, or vojvod ; in return, the immigrants provided military service, defending the empire against the Turks.
This region, called the Military Frontier, underwent a succession of changes in its political status during the 19th century. The civil and military regions were again separated in — the Military Frontier remained attached to Austria, and the other segments reverted to the Hungarian crown.
This section of the Military Frontier was abolished in , and it, too, reverted to Hungarian control, although the name Vojvodina continued in general use.
In Vojvodina was incorporated into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes , which was renamed Yugoslavia in In , after a wartime Axis occupation that had split up Yugoslavia, Vojvodina was reincorporated into the new socialist Yugoslav federation as an autonomous province of the Serbian republic.
The process of regionalization in Yugoslavia had by made Vojvodina a virtual republic in its own right.
It remained a province in the new Yugoslav republic established in The ethnic makeup of Vojvodina was altered considerably by the warfare in the Balkan region that followed the breakup of the Yugoslav federation.
They were replaced by ethnic Serbs who came as refugees from Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina , and the Serbian province of Kosovo. Bridges over the Sava and Danube were specially targeted.
Nominal autonomous status was restored to Vojvodina in Though the province maintained its nominal autonomy , some local groups continued to call for a more extensive form of self-rule.
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In the 9th century, after the fall of the Avar state, the first forms of Slavic statehood emerged in this area. The first Slavic states that ruled over this region included the Bulgarian Empire, Great Moravia and Ljudevit's Pannonian Duchy.
During the Bulgarian administration 9th century , local Bulgarian dukes, Salan and Glad , ruled over the region.
Salan's residence was Titel, while that of Glad was possibly in the rumoured rampart of Galad or perhaps in the Kladovo Gladovo in eastern Serbia.
Glad's descendant was the duke Ahtum, another local ruler from the 11th century who opposed the establishment of Hungarian rule over the region.
Erdely and Vilkhnovich consider the graves to belong to the Kabars who eventually broke ties with the Khazar Empire between the s and Three other Khazar tribes joined the Magyars and took part in the Magyar conquest of the Carpathian basin including what is now Vojvodina in — Following territorial disputes with Byzantine and Bulgarian states, most of Vojvodina became part of the Kingdom of Hungary between the 10th and 12th century and remained under Hungarian administration until the 16th century Following periods of Ottoman and Habsburg administrations, Hungarian political dominance over most of the region was established again in and over entire region in , after abolition of the Habsburg Military Frontier.
The regional demographic balance started changing in the 11th century when Magyars began to replace the local Slavic population.
But from the 14th century, the balance changed again in favour of the Slavs when Serbian refugees fleeing from territories conquered by the Ottoman army settled in the area.
Most  of the Hungarians left the region during the Ottoman conquest and early period of Ottoman administration, so the population of Vojvodina in Ottoman times was predominantly Serbs who comprised an absolute majority of Vojvodina at the time , with significant presence of Muslims of various ethnic backgrounds.
He created an ephemeral independent state, with Subotica as its capital. At the peak of his power, Jovan Nenad proclaimed himself Serbian Emperor in Subotica.
Taking advantage of the extremely confused military and political situation, the Hungarian noblemen from the region joined forces against him and defeated the Serbian troops in the summer of Emperor Jovan Nenad was assassinated and his state collapsed.
A few decades later, the whole region was added to the Ottoman Empire , which ruled over it until the end of the 17th and the first half of the 18th century, when it was incorporated into the Habsburg Monarchy.
The Treaty of Karlowitz of , between Holy League and Ottoman Empire , marked the withdrawal of the Ottoman forces from Central Europe , and the supremacy of the Habsburg Monarchy in that part of the continent.
According to the treaty, the western part of Vojvodina passed to Habsburgs. This new border change was ratified by the Treaty of Passarowitz in During the Great Serb Migration , Serbs from Ottoman territories settled in the Habsburg Monarchy at the end of the 17th century in Most settled in what is now Hungary, with the lesser part settling in western Vojvodina.
All Serbs in the Habsburg Monarchy gained the status of a recognized nation with extensive rights, in exchange for providing a border militia in the Military Frontier that could be mobilized against invaders from the south such as the Ottomans , as well as in case of civil unrest in the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary.
The Vlachs who settled there were mainly Serbs, although there were also and Romanians while Greek-Vlachian Cincari lived in the urban areas.
Later, the civil administration was expanded to other mostly northern parts of the region, while southern parts remained under military administration.
The eastern part of this area was held again by the Ottoman Empire between —88, during the Russo-Turkish War. In , Vienna temporarily forbade settlement by Hungarians and Jews in the area, while large numbers of German speakers were settled in the region from Bavaria and southern areas, in order to repopulate it and develop agriculture.
From , Protestant Hungarians and ethnic Germans settled in larger numbers. During the —49 revolutions , Vojvodina was a site of a war between Serbs and Hungarians, due to the opposite national conceptions of these two peoples.
At the May Assembly in Sremski Karlovci 13—15 May , Serbs declared the constitution of the Serbian Voivodship Serbian Duchy , a Serbian autonomous region within the Austrian Empire.
The ethnic war erupted harshly in this area, with both sides committing terrible atrocities against the civilian populations.
Following the Habsburg-Russian and Serb victory over the Hungarians in , a new administrative territory was created in the region in November , in accordance with a decision made by the Austrian emperor.
By this decision, the Serbian autonomous region created in was transformed into the new Austrian crown land known as Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar.
An Austrian governor seated in Temeschwar ruled the area, while the title of Voivod belonged to the emperor himself. German and Illyrian Serbian were the official languages of the crown land.
In , the new province was abolished and most of it with exception of Syrmia was again integrated into the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary.
Vojvodina remained Austrian Crown land until , when Emperor Franz Joseph decided that it would be Hungarian Crown land again. In , a new county system was introduced.
The era following the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of was a period of economic flourishing. The Kingdom of Hungary had the second-fastest growing economy in Europe between —, [ citation needed ] but ethnic relations were strained.
According to the census, the last census conducted in Austria-Hungary, the population of Vojvodina included , At the end of World War I , the Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed.
On 29 October , Syrmia became a part of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs. The government of Hungary recognized its independence, but it was short-lived.
One day before this, on 24 November, the Assembly of Syrmia also proclaimed the unification of Syrmia with Serbia.
On 1 December , Vojvodina as part of the Kingdom of Serbia officially became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. Between —41, the region was part of the Danube Banovina , a province of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
Its capital city was Novi Sad. Between —44, during World War II , Nazi Germany and its allies, Hungary and the Independent State of Croatia , occupied Vojvodina and divided.
The administrative center of this smaller province was Smederevo. But, Banat was a separate autonomous region ruled by its ethnic German minority.
The occupying powers committed numerous crimes against the civilian population, especially against Serbs, Jews and Roma; the Jewish population of Vojvodina was almost completely killed or deported.
In total, Axis occupational authorities killed about 50, citizens of Vojvodina mostly Serbs, Jews and Roma while more than , people were interned, arrested, violated or tortured.
When Axis occupation ended in , the region was temporarily placed under a military administration —45 run by the new communist authorities.
During and after the military administration, several thousands of citizens were killed. Victims were mostly ethnic Germans, but Hungarian and Serb populations were also killed.
While war-time prisoners in these camps were mostly Jews, Serbs and communists, post-war camps were formed for ethnic Germans historically known as Danube Swabians.
Most Vojvodina ethnic Germans about , fled the region in , together with the defeated German army. It is estimated that some 48, Germans died in the camps from disease, hunger, malnutrition, mistreatment, and cold.
It has also been estimated that post-war communist authorities killed some 15,—20, Hungarians   and some 23,—24, Serbs  during Communist purges in Serbia in — About half were killed by occupational Axis forces and the other half by the post-war Communist authorities.
Instead of the previous name Danube Banovina , the region regained its historical name of Vojvodina, while its capital city remained Novi Sad.
For decades, the province enjoyed only a small level of autonomy within Serbia. Under the Yugoslav constitution, it gained extensive rights of self-rule, as both Kosovo and Vojvodina were given de facto veto power in the Serbian and Yugoslav parliaments.
Changes to their status could not be made without the consent of the two Provincial Assemblies. The Serbian constitution, adopted at the same time, reiterated that "the Socialist Republic of Serbia comprises the Socialist Autonomous Province of Vojvodina and the Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo , which originated in the common struggle of nations and nationalities of Yugoslavia in the National Liberation War the Second World War and socialist revolution".
In s, during the war in Croatia in persecution of Croats in Serbia during Yugoslav Wars was organized and participated in the expulsion of the Croats in some places in Vojvodina.
Based on an investigation by the Humanitarian Law Fund from Belgrade in the course of June, July, and August , more than 10, Croats from Vojvodina exchanged their property for the property of Serbs from Croatia, and altogether about 20, Croats left Serbia.
Eventually Vojvodina and Kosovo had to accept Serbia's constitutional amendments that practically dismissed the autonomy of the provinces in Serbia.
Vojvodina and Kosovo lost elements of statehood in September when the new constitution of the Republic of Serbia was adopted.
Vojvodina was still referred to as an autonomous province of Serbia, but most of its autonomous powers — including, crucially, its vote on the Yugoslav collective presidency — were transferred to the control of Belgrade, the capital.
The province still had its own parliament and government, and some other autonomous functions as well. Following talks between the political parties, the level of the province's autonomy was somewhat increased by the omnibus law in The Vojvodina provincial assembly adopted a new statute on 15 October , which, after being partially amended, was approved by the Parliament of Serbia.
Vojvodina is situated in the northern quarter of Serbia , in the southeast part of the Pannonian Plain , the plain that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea dried out.
As a consequence of this, Vojvodina is rich in fertile loamy loess soil , covered with a layer of chernozem. The Assembly of Vojvodina is the provincial legislature composed of proportionally elected members.
The current members were elected in the provincial elections. The Government of Vojvodina is the executive administrative body composed of a president and cabinet ministers.
The current ruling coalition in the Vojvodina parliament is composed of the following political parties: Serbian Progressive Party , Socialist Party of Serbia and Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians.
Vojvodina is divided into seven districts. They are regional centers of state authority, but have no powers of their own; they present purely administrative divisions.
Vojvodina is more diverse than the rest of Serbia with more than 25 ethnic groups and six languages which are in the official use by the provincial administration.
Population by ethnicity: . Public Broadcasting Service of Vojvodina was founded in as Radio Television of Novi Sad, as an equal member of the association of JRT — Yugoslav Radio Television.
Radio Novi Sad's first broadcast was on November 29, During the NATO bombing in the spring of , the RT Novi Sad building of 20 thousand square meters was completely destroyed along with its basic production and technical premises.
The Venac terrestrial broadcasting site was heavily damaged. The Radio-Television of Vojvodina produces and broadcasts regional programming on two channels, RTV1 Serbian language and RTV2 minority languages , and three radio frequencies: Radio Novi Sad 1 Serbian , Radio Novi Sad 2 Hungarian , Radio Novi Sad 3 other minority communities.
The economy of Vojvodina is largely based on developed food industry and fertile agricultural soil. Agriculture is a priority sector in Vojvodina.
The metal industry of Vojvodina has a long tradition and consists of smaller metal processing companies for components manufacturing and, to a lesser extent, of original equipment manufacturers OEM with their own brand name products.
Vojvodina Metal Cluster gathers companies with 6, employees. Other branches of industry are also developed such as the chemical industry, electrical industry, oil industry and construction industry.
In the past decade, ICT sector has been growing rapidly and has taken significant role in Vojvodina's economic development. High- tech sector is a fast-growing sector in Vojvodina.
Software development represents the main source of revenue, particularly development of ERP solutions, Java applications and mobile applications.
IT sector companies mainly deal with software outsourcing, based on demands of international clients or with development of their own software products for purposes of domestic and international market.
Vojvodina pays particular attention to interregional and cross-border economic cooperation, as well as to implementation of priorities defined within the EU Strategy for the Danube Region.
Vojvodina promotes its investment potentials through the Vojvodina Investment Promotion VIP agency, which was founded by the Parliament of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina.
There are many important roads which pass through Vojvodina. Motorway A3 in Srem separates the west, towards the neighboring Croatia and further to Western Europe.
There is also a network of regional and local roads and railway lines. The three largest rivers in Vojvodina are navigable stream. In the last few years, Exit has been very popular among the European summer music festivals.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the autonomous province within Serbia. For other uses, see Vojvodina disambiguation. For Yugoslav provinces, see AP Vojvodina.
Autonomous province of Serbia. Autonomous province in Serbia. Autonomous province. Coat of arms. Serbian Hungarian Slovak Romanian Croatian Rusyn.
Main article: History of Vojvodina. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.